#NODAPL

There is a lot of controversy over the building of the  Dakota Access Pipeline. During his Presidency, last year President Obama and the Army Corps of Engineers stop the construction of the pipe line.

Now 23 days into his presidency, Trump and his new administration have passed some controversial executive orders, but the one executive order that poses a real threat to human rights violation is the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline.

Nodapl protest image

Standing Rock Protest (Picture courtesy of Google Images)

The Dakota Access Pipeline is a 1,172 mile long pipeline ranging 80 inches in diameter transferring crude oil from North Dakota to Patoka, Illinois. According to http://www.daplpipelinefacts.com underneath Lake Oahe lies seven more pipelines, the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline will be the eight addition to an already vulnerable situation.

In 2010, Deepwater Horizon leaked in the Gulf of Mexico an easily preventable situation by British Petroleum with a $500 thousand shut off valve could have negated the catastrophic event. According to http://www.dosomething.org because of BP lack of foresight and negligence the company is responsible for approximately $40 billion in fines, cleanup cost, and settlements, which does not include the additional $16 billion to the Clean Water Act, but this is not the catastrophe. Humanities negligence and destruction of water and the ecological eradication of species is the biggest catastrophic misfortune to occur in centuries.

“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it,” said Philosopher George Santayana.

Humanity has not forgotten about the past oil spills, but instead chooses not to acknowledge or learn from these past catastrophic events, and so they are condemned to repeat it while, encroaching on our human rights.

The Journal of American Behavioral Scientist, The Exxon Valdez, and BP Oil Spills: A Comparison of Initial Social and Psychological Impacts by Duane A. Gill, J. Steven Picou, and Liesel A. Ritchie compared the two biggest oil spills in North Americas’ history the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and the 2010 BP spill, providing research of the social, physical, and mental health impacts within the residents residing near the spills.

The authors of the study randomly sampled residents of Cordova, Alaska- Exxon Spill and South Mobil County, Alabama- BP Spill, 5 months after each event.

“The Exxon spill had harmful consequences on local communities…,” said Gill, Picou, and Ritchie.

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (Picture courtesy of Google Images)

According to the journal communities whose social, economic, and cultural lifestyle tied to commercial fishery were severely impacted and suffered emotional distress.

“Initial human impacts within these communities included high levels of collective trauma, social disruptions, economic uncertainty, community conflict, and psychological stress,” said Gill et. al.

Alaska Natives and commercial fisherman experience the brunt of the aftermath of the spill causing significant declines in local fisheries, which impacted their livelihood and economic well-being.

According to the Journal of American Behavioral Science not only did the oil spill effect the community and residents of Cordova on a Macro-level, but it also had a significant impact to its residents on a micro-level.

Residents of Cordova, Alaska felt significant disruptions to their daily routines, family life, work, their future, as well as serious mental health problems. Examples of stresses they felt includes: increase drug and alcohol use, domestic violence, chronic feelings of helplessness, betrayal, anger, elevated levels of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and adoption of avoidance coping strategies. Most of this feeling had also to do with the prolonged litigation.

According to the journal article the authors found similar findings in studying the social, economic, and cultural lifestyle of South Mobil County residents’ aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon leak.

Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill

Deep Water Horizon Spill (Picture courtesy of Google Images)

If the already vulnerable Lake Oahe becomes contaminated the people of Standing Rock will face the same psychological, social, and economic misfortunes as the residents of Cordova, Alaska and South Mobil County, Alabama.

The Water Protectors of North Dakota, and the Standing Rock Reservation are all fighting for the access to clean and sanitary drinking water.

By the government denying them access to clean water knowing the detrimental effects through the aftermaths of past oil spills, and clearly creating a human rights issue.

 

 

 

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Homeless In America

Homeless in America

The Mentally ill homeless

By: Mia Safaee

The Mentally ill homeless in the United States have been associated with costly use of medical and social services. Which have been ineffective, since the number of homeless with mental illness out on the streets has been increasing.

homeless

Sadness of boy in the city (Picture Courtesy of Google Images)

According to National Law Center on Homeless and Poverty, the population for mentally ill homeless people was 57 percent in 2004 though the numbers continue to rise. According to the Journal of Community Health Nursing, the increasing numbers of mentally ill homeless on the streets have been affecting public safety. The HUD COC Application Data on (http://www.hudhre.info/documents )says that on January 2007 nearly 63 percent of the homeless population who were sheltered are individuals and more than 37 percent were families.

To reduce the number of mentally ill homeless on the streets The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, HUD, said that they will be providing 15,000 units of permanent housing in the United States in an effort to reduce the cost and suffering associated with homelessness.

“HUD funds are appropriated each year through the HUD budget,” says Stanley Seidenfeld Regional Supervisor officer in New York and John Roberto, Pittsburgh, HUD supervisor regional operations officer.

He says that HUD gets support from regional authorizing and legislation and several other types of programs.

“The most recent grant given in 2008, which HUD was appointed $1.3 billion nationwide,” he says.

The money does not go toward building new housing Seidenfeld say, but rather goes towards construction work towards previous houses built to keep them operating.

“To receive regular homeless assistance a person must be homeless for one night,” says Roberto.

He says most or several program HUD provides, most applicants must meet the requirement of homelessness to receive housing because there are limited resources.

“But we try to place them in housing that will do them the most good,” he says.

Ultimately, he says what we perceive as homeless is not what other people perceive.  We try to get the homeless on the right track if we see that they are homeless we will give them housing over night, but then we eventually move them into transitional housing where they can stay up to two years, but we want to eventually get them in to regular or permanent housing.

Although for a homeless with chronic illness to qualify for housing they must be individuals disabled by substance abuse, have serious mental illness… they must be homeless for a year or more, or had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years. “This requirement is place only for homeless who are chronically ill,” says Roberto.

“Many of these people coping with severe mental illness have been trapped in a cycle of homelessness, going back and forth from the streets to a shelter,” says Suzann Legander publisher of the Behavioral Healthcare Journal: Housing First.

John Roberto says that the percentage of mentally ill homeless and homeless people that have no applied to HUD vary by jurisdiction provided by the local government. He says that the percentage of homeless staying in shelters changes daily, it depends on a variety of factors, weather being one of them.

“Among all the homeless people 58 percent were sleeping in emergency shelters or transitional housing facilities, and the rest were on the streets,” says Steve C. Preston Secretary of U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Many of the shelters caring for the mentally ill do not fully assist the homeless with their fundamental needs and that is why they end up on the streets again. According to the Journal of Community Health and Nursing, health care providers intentionally rely on common health care settings such as required documents, security personal and locked doors, knowing that it will intimidate or frighten the homeless and keep them out.

“Health care providers are most likely keep homeless out because of cost issues,” says Dr. Richa Aggarwal Psychiatrists at Hershey Medical Center.

According to the Journal of Community Health Nursing the transition from homeless to housing usually begins when the police finds them sleeping or wandering the streets. Police will usually take them to a psychiatric hospital for evaluation and if the patients meet the criteria’s they are admitted, but they are usually discharged after two or three days.

Officer Frank J. Divonzo, Penn State Harrisburg campus police says, that officers will sometimes have problems on deciding whether to take them to a hospital, because they consider whether the hospital will release them, after the police have left.

He says that sometimes when a homeless person is taken in they will sometime move in and out of psychosis states, so sometimes they will tell the hospital that they are fine and they don’t need to be here and the hospital will usually release them.

Dr. Aggarwal says, that Hershey Hospital provides programs for both inpatients and out patients they provide the same general programs that they would provide for non-homeless patients. Homeless patients do not need to meet any specific criteria. They just have to meet the same criteria as a normal psychiatric person would need to meet.

Dr. Aggarwal says that some of the criteria that they would have to meet in order to be admitted would be, they are not able to take care of themselves, being harmful to themselves to others… When patients are discharged they have nothing to go back to. One individual said:

“They take you in because the police bring you, but as soon as they drive away, the hospital is trying to toss you back out in the streets.”

Dr. Aggarwal says that some may still be living on the streets, because most state hospitals do not provide facilities for them. She says that they need the necessities of life which are food and shelter, and when the state hospitals do not have facilities for them their basic needs are not meet.

Dr. Aggarwal says, sometimes the Hershey Psychiatric department will get walk- in patients that are sent by shelters and sometimes they walk in off the streets.

“We don’t turn them away, if they need help we provide it for them, and if we see that their condition is severe, we then admit them,” she says.

She also says that some of them they can help, while others they cannot. Usually the patient stays for four to five days. “It depends on the patient, if they need to stay longer they stay,” she says.

Although the social implications that come with the mentally ill homeless having a hard time receiving shelter and getting the proper medical care, they need leads to higher suicidal rates.

From the article, Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in Homeless Mentally ill Persons: Age specific risk of substance abuse, by the Soc Psychiatry, Psychiatry Epidemiology, published in 2003 the article talks about the cause of suicidal rates among the homeless, but especially high numbers among the mentally ill homeless.

The article says that there is a high rate of suicidal behavior among the mentally ill homeless, but it is unknown whether the homeless populations who are not mentally ill also have a high number of suicidal rates.

“Methods Data from multi-site outreach programs were used to investigate whether rates of serious suicidal idealization and recent suicide attempts varied with age and substance abuse diagnoses,” said the publisher of the article.

The article says that suicide attempts were most common in case of the younger mentally ill homeless than compared to the older mentally ill homeless. The article also says that alcohol and drug abuse did not seem to increase the thought of suicide among them.

“However, a significant interaction between age and substance abuse was observed showing that among older clients, those with drug and alcohol abuse were at significantly greater risk of suicidal idealization than those without substance abuse problems,” said the publishers of the article.

The growing rate of suicide among the homeless is cause for concern. Rates of suicide at attempts depend on the person’s age, but depression is the main cause of suicide with all ages. In a study of first time homeless men living on the streets 7 percent reporter thoughts of suicide while approximately a third of the homeless men living in shelters reported a past a past suicide attempt.

The growing number of the homeless population intensifies the need for more people to understand their situation. A test conducted for this study showed that in the past 30 days 41-44 percent of suicide thoughts and suicidal attempts was said to be reported less among mentally ill homeless of 30-39 years old. The finds of the study show that age, substance abuse, and mental illness all play a factor in suicidal attempts and treats among the homeless.

The economic status for mentally ill homeless people is very cost effective. Robert Rosenheck the publisher of the America Journal of Psychiatry the Cost effectiveness of Services for Mentally Ill Homeless People: The Application of Research to Policy and Practice, in his journal, he says that about one-quarter of homeless Americans have serious mental illnesses and providing housing for them is very cost effective to the economy.

The publisher groups the services provided for the mentally ill homeless into three categories: Outreach programs, Case management, and housing payments. The study calculated the cost of medical care for one year for mentally ill homeless veterans and the total cost was approximately 8,000 dollars.

“The first published cost-effectiveness study case for homeless people compared a broker case management intervention,” said Rosenheck.

He says the case management places clients in treatment programs. The treatment programs exceed 9,000 dollars per client. The cost for health treatment rose three percent over one year.

“The goal of specialized homeless service programs must ultimately be to transition clients into mainstream housing,” says Rosenheck. The cost for providing services to the mentally ill homeless is high considering that less than half of them are taking advantage of the housing and medical services.

The study on Homeless, Mental illness, and Criminal Activity: Examining Patterns over time examines the severity psychological symptoms between street homeless, and sheltered homeless and whether housing and living on the street played a role in their criminal activities. For the study, they had 207 mentally ill homeless participants. The participants were interviewed nine times over four years to see if the severity of their illness worsened or got better, and how the changing of their illness affected their criminal activities.

The study found that mentally ill homeless were more likely to be arrested for minor offenses like camping without a permit or indecent exposure. Other researchers found that they were charged with trespassing, sleeping in abandoned buildings, or sleeping on park benches.

Office Divonzo says, that most of the times parks have been taken over by the homeless, so the police will make them move so that they do not appear to be a blemish on the state.

“It’s mainly political,” he says.

He says that some prisons do a better job with treating mental illness. Some will consider the nature of the prisoners’ illness, the nature of the crime, and look for the resources that are available to them. Other prisons just treat them like any other criminal.

The system is structured to treat the mentally ill homeless differently. Officer Divonzo says that they would usually be sent to a mental health institution or a secure mental health institution depending if they had any previous history of violence. He says that officers are supposed to take them there, but that is not the reality of the situation, the reality is that the police officer will not be able to identify them as mentally ill, and they will most likely be sent to regular prison.

City Police cleaning up a homeless persons home. (Picture courtesy of Google Images)

Homeless individuals may adopt some illegal activities such as theft to get by. In most cases, officer Divonzo says that when a homeless person committees and non- violent crime the police push them off, because if they were to give them citations they would not have the means to pay the fines. Sometimes they receive more than one citation and since they cannot pay them, they are taken to court.

If a judge is available for misdemeanors the homeless individual will often be tried at Night Court, taken to court, and tried right away.

The study found that homeless individuals are less prone to criminal activities when they are confined in a homeless shelter where they are given the assistants they need. Officer Divonzo says that they have rarely found cases of homeless with mental illness committee violent crime. In most cases in downtown Harrisburg, they were hardly ever jailed.

He says when they are jail they are jailed for a while just so that they can cool off.

“In other cases, some mentally ill homeless have been tasered or shot by the Harrisburg Police, because the officer didn’t know how to handle the situations,” says Officer Divonzo.

He also says that it depends on the officers’ training in how to deal with these types of situations.

There is little evidence to back up the relationship between homeless and non-violent crimes compared to violent crimes.

“In fact, research suggests that people with mental illness have a modestly higher rate of committing violent crimes than that of the general population,” said Mulvey E.P author of the Journal Hospital and Community Psychiatry.

Homeless men were generally no different from that of the general population in committing violent crimes. Arrests among mentally ill homeless men and the general population did not statistically differ or were lower for murder, rape, and aggravated assault, though robber rates were significantly higher for mentally ill homeless males. Homeless males were less likely arrested for violent crimes. Officer Divonzo says that 9 out of 10 of the mentally ill homeless are not arrested when they have committed violent crimes.

If they are taken to jail most of them will typically have psychosis states.

“The reason for this is that they cannot be in closed spaces or close to people,” he says.

He says usually when they are jailed for the first time the get into arguments and fights with people. Depending on the prison, if the officer does not anticipate it they usually react harshly to their out bursts.

“They only react this way, because they cannot handle the confined space,” he says.

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Peace

In Gray Cox’s book The Way of Peace, he brings into context the verb for peace, Peace-ing- a cultivation of agreements.

“Gerald Holtmon, a designer and former World War II conscientious objector from West London, persuaded the Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War, DAC that their aims would have greater impact if they convey it in a visual image. ‘The Ban the Bomb’ symbol was born,” said Westcott of BBC News.

The article World’s best-known protest symbol turns 50 by Kathryn Westcott said, Holtmon considered using a christian cross, but instead settled on using letters from the flag signaling alphabet symbolizing N and D for nuclear disarmament and placing them within a circle symbolizing the Earth.

“I drew it myself, said Holtmon the representative of an individual in despair, with hands palm stretched outwards and downwards in the manner of Goya’s peasant before the firing squad.”

He later explained that the design was to mean a human being in despair, but before his death he later came to regret the connotation of despair and wanted the sign inverted. That peace should be something celebrated.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and consciences and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

September 21, 1983 in commemoration of the International Day of Peace and in solidarity with the United Nations, the NGO’s Pathways to Peace inaugurated a Minuet of Silence at 12 Noon in each time zone resulting in a Peace Wave across the globe. According to the website www.internationaldayofpeace.org individuals, organizations, and countries around the world are asked to observe a minuet of silence-moment of peace on Peace Day to remind themselves and each other their progress towards building a culture of Peace worldwide, and that even in our cultural effort to combat our hostilities and differences in a greater effort to end wars, poverty, famine, and pain and suffering and unite as on in the name of Peace.

On December 2015 at the Paris Climate Conference 195 countries came together and adopted the first ever universal binding global climate agreement. The goal of the agreement set to put the world back on track to limit the global temperature from reaching 1.5 degrees Celsius limiting global warming below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

According to the European Commission along with the Paris Climate Agreement setting this global goal highlights the concerns of some of the most vulnerable countries already experiencing the impact of climate change.

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References for Global Freshwater Scarcity Article

http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/US_Mexico_Aquifer_New.htm

http://aquapedia.waterdiplomacy.org/wiki/index.php?title=Transboundary_Dispute_Resolution:_U.S./Mexico_Shared_Aquifers

http://mavensnotebook.com/2014/03/30/daily-digest-weekend-edition-san-joaquin-valley-sinking-as-farmers-race-to-tap-aquifer-panel-finds-trouble-in-twin-tunnels-plan-who-gets-water-divides-lawmakers-and-much-more/

http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/freshwater_supply/freshwater.html

http://www.unicefusa.org/stories/mission/survival/interactive-mapping-child-survival/17567

http://www.unmultimedia.org/tv/webcast/2011/11/kenya-water-scarcity.html

https://water.usgs.gov/edu/gw-well-contamination.html

http://www.usgs.gov/visual-id/credit_usgs.html

http://water.org/water-crisis/womens-crisis/

http://water.org/solutions/watercredit/

http://childlivesmap.com/

http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/wash_diseases.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK28449/

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References for Climate Change Article

Sources:

http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/qthinice.asp

https://www2.ucar.edu/climate/faq/how-much-has-global-temperature-risen-last-100-years

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/co2.html

http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aXLehIAGLzQI

http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/d0cf6618525a9efb85257359003fb69d/2c246d7d7ad2c4b685257c90005b4fc1!OpenDocument

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/electricity.html

http://www.nerc.com/AboutNERC/Pages/default.aspx

http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=32&t=6

http://www.eia.gov/energy_in_brief/article/renewable_portfolio_standards.cfm

http://www.world-nuclear.org/Nuclear-Basics/Electricity-generation—what-are-the-options-/

http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=77&t=11

http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence

PDF: U.S. Climate Action Report 2010

Journal of Global Climate Change: Basics, Challenges, and International

Impacts   by David D. Houghton

 

PDF: Lessons Learned from Natural Gas STAR Partners Reduced Emissions Completions for

Hydraulically Fractured Natural Gas Wells By: The Environmental Protection Agency

 

http://www.climateandweather.net/world_weather/influence_weather.htm

 

 

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/whatis.htm

 

http://www.trcp.org/issues/climate-change

 

http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/speciesProfile.action?spcode=A0IJ

 

http://www.wwf.org.uk/what_we_do/safeguarding_the_natural_world/wildlife/polar_bear/

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Just Dance

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Playing with fire

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